sabato 12 settembre 2015

Unfinished constitutionalism and the development of the Italian Mafias in the intellectual work of Pasquale Villari.


In the path of knowledge that some choose to take, it could happen that you're lucky enough to run into confirmations that provide additional energy for the rest of the trip. This is the case of my current studies on the Italia Destra Storica  (Historic Right) and the production of some prominent figures protagonists of the Italian revolutionary process ended with the Unity.
My determination to understand the deep causes and especially the persistence of the phenomenon of mafia crime in the Italian South force me more and more often, and with greater force, toward the study of the process and outcome of the unification of Italy.
This intuition, became a working idea to be developed, that the Italian mafias always served as centers of interest for third powers that systematically give it interested support.
And the recent case of what I found in relation to the work of Pasquale Villari, a leading figure in the history of the formation and life of the first Italian parliament. Throughout his professional life as a historian, philosopher and senator of the first Parliament, the Villari’ studies and analysis identified the negative results about the construction of Italy as entity.
The following is an excerpt from the book: Pasquale Villari, Freedom or Anarchy, published by Mimesis, Sisyphus, 2015.
It is an excerpt of one of the letters written by Villari and addressed, in March 1875, to James, Dina, director of the newspaper "The opinion," . 


Villari wrote: or you will be able to civile us, or we will make you barbarians.


My attention is devoted recently, as part of a wider research, to the historiography of the Unitarians facts with particular reference to the production of those characters, like Villari whom were prominent actors in the process of unification and that were immediately capable after the death of Count Cavour, to point put the evil plague that policy and its management of the State was taking.
I'm dedicating this research and analysis, as more and more apparent, to the permanence of the phenomenon of organized mafia-type crime in Italy and its deep roots, its core, in the failure of the constitutional process, unlike what happened in other countries European such as among others England and.
Pasquale Villari, was a revolutionary in the 1948 uprising against the Borboni, historian and a philosopher but also Senator of the first Italian Parliament and professor of history and an director of the renewed Scuola Normale of Pisa and even the Minister of Education.
Having recognized its international reputation in life if he appreciated the honesty of the true history, and it is this feature that affect my reading of his works with reference to the writings on the Camorra and the Sicilian Mafia, but especially on the role of patronage, should read corruption, as the plague that has undermined the unfolding of a positive constitutional process and therefore the relationship between the southern and northern Italy.
Writes Villari:
(...) then, if the source of the ills that afflict us so cruelly and that all deplore, is not in men, is not in the nature of a regime it clear that the historian has eliminated the human factor and the organizational model of the society to prepare ourselves, of course, to his explanation of ... so many calamities ... such was the state of things ever since.
Villari and then warns us: (...) the conservative element and the revolutionary were always fighting and do not reached an equilibrium (...) in other countries these two elements have come into conflict through centuries of bloody revolutions and bowing in balance to be one people, it is derived by the story (…).
And in this struggle continues without even point the evil of our nation as atavistic as adds: (...) instead of two parties fighting each other, light up, compete and kill each other with each other power; we have in the House and in the country of men and newspaper, two parties, one of which is still in power and still defends the government, another makes the war and attacked him constantly (...) and adds (...) the problem waves to solve no longer seems to be: How to order the country? But rather: How to strengthen your own party ... (...) we have every minister who comes to power must meet a number of friends and enemies, who come to seek justice pei their constituents. Once admitted to the system, there is no minister or deputy who can be saved from the tide that grows on each side (…)
What to add? The tide has swept everything.
The first consideration is concerned perseverance in error because after 150 years this photograph reflects the current state of things in politics, the second, brings us closer to the focal point of my writing: This imbalance between government / opposition in what results?
The answer, of course, is provided: the demonization of the opponent in a democracy is meant to lead to a popular vote in the hope of getting to take power. Stigmatizes Villari: (...) The parties need votes; but the country needs men and the country is above the parties (...).
Here's how and why corruption still now affect Italy.
That determination must be answered to a further question: why in the South and not in the rest of the country develop the mafias?
Villari is very clear it is linked to the fact that in 1861 first came political revolution and then the social one; revolution that has never made, due to the narrow-minded political myopia.
Again are the writers to remind us with vivid images of the unfolding events in those years. Federico De Roberto in “The Viceroy” tells us of a Sicilian aristocratic family thriving to overcome the upcoming revolution by sending a representative to Parliament Unit with the main purpose of their own interests without solution of continuity with the past world. 
“The Leopard” wrote by Tomasi di Lampedusa, which owes much to the work of De Roberto but thanks to the cinema has been more successful with that famous phrase: (...) to change everything so that nothing changes (...) to which I I much prefer reflection of the Prince of Salina, talking loudly to himself says, (...) we were the ones to come will ocelots jackals (...).
Did they went wrong? No, they did not.
The Sicilian Mafia, the Camorra and the 'Ndrangheta are still there, among us and in health, to confirm the root of evil in this country.
It seems obvious that these assessments and theses of Pasquale Villari merit further examination, but certainly it can be concluded that the way forward is one that takes us back to the non-ordinary and harmonious development of the Italian nation. The Unification of Italy gave us a country but not a nation, and this is because the political revolution was no anticipated or at least followed by a social one.
This are the reasons that produced the evident imbalances, that favorites and fed the criminals forces to continue to survive at the sole and constant detriment of Italian society.