lunedì 26 gennaio 2015

Tribalism and the New Geografy


Who reads these pages is familiar with the concept of First Permanent War and a-polar world system from the geopolitical point of view that refer to the contemporary geopolitical dynamics without superpowers able to exercise power exclusively in which the phenomena of onset express the subversive potential in a territory by binding inescapably other actors which can control a territory.
In most cases this control belongs to the local communities with the inherent specificity -ethnographic and anthropological- which certainly are of tribal nature.
The tribes, especially in non-urbanized territories of those countries that have not experienced the results of Greek, Roman, Germanic civilization and the industrial and post-industrial effects, is still the primary form of aggregation protective and more widespread.
It follows, that the role of the tribe, decisive for the management of commercial activities in the area of belonging, of course, also has an impact in the management of criminal activities through various forms of smuggling which often represent the only source of income available.
In Iraq, for example, there are about 150 tribes and clans composed in 2000 respective areas of influence. 75% of Iraq's population belongs to a clan or has blood ties with one of these. From the base unit, the family it goes to the enlarged family and then to the clan and so to the tribe  ending with tribal organization in the form of a confederation of tribes.
This same organizational structure we identify in much of the rest of the World that once we were used to identify such as the second and third world. With the loss of national sovereignty there are an increasing number of states in crisis or in the process of bankruptcy because of the pressures that come from below in order to to maintain their territorial privileges.
These days what is going on in Yemen reveal  clearly this trend as the population Zaidi, led by tribal militia of al-Houthi, having seen betrayed the agreements made with the government of San'à has decided to occupy the centers of power claiming the direct administration of northern territories of atavistic membership, leaving the south to the administration of local tribal forces supported by AQ in Yemen.
The central role of the tribes always emerges with greater force and will be crucial even in the Libyan crisis that, as Italians, affects us more directly.
The upheaval of the borders of Iraq and Syria with the birth of the Caliphate, future claims by Kurdish, the Libyan and Malian crisis as well as the activities of insurgent Shaabab in Somalia and Boko Haram in Nigeria, to mention only the best known, are facts that are redrawing the political map belonging to the last century.
Welcome to the new Geography.