In it, it is emphasizes with naturalness the temporal sulcus pre and post unitary that marked the birth of the Italian mafias in the context of these historical changes. The old aristocratic and feudal ruling class, for the last under the Bourbons, immediately grabbed the wind of change that inexorably would have changed the national scene and to it offered its own sailing not trying to resist but taking advantage of the headway. If we want things to stay as they are, things will have to change tell Tancred, the nephew to his uncle, the Leopard, justifying his decision to espouse the unitary cause .
However, the nobility and the Piedmonteses were not the only actors of the period because of their own weaknesses, or rather by their wickedness, it will born a tyrannical middle class that will act as a catalyst for illicit interests of an entire criminal, political and financial underwood, in which riverbed see the light of the mafias. It is not my intention here to retrace the historical steps though compelling the entire period, but I'll just talk about the result of this process, namely the birth of the endemic corruption that permeates Italian life since his unity.
It had been only a few years which already December 20, 1892, Napoleon Colajanni, eclectic figure and child at the time, garibaldino and then deputy, denounced in Parliament colossal cheating of the Banca Romana, a time bank of the Papal States, and one of the six institutions bank authorized to mint coins in place of the state. The scandal, the first of the Italian Republic, will serve as the archetype for all those that in the years to follow, no imagination, will multiply; corrupt officials, banking institutions that distort the financial statements constituting funds in the black, even uttering counterfeit, altered overnight in the basement of the bank, for sponsoring governments and other similar fun activities: 1892.
The corruption was already endemic, widespread but mostly evident. One more example. The first great crime of the Sicilian Mafia is certainly the murder of the Marquis Emanuele Notarbartolo; it is a murder preventive, made in order to ensure that the gentleman not returned to the head of the Banco di Sicilia hampering business between the Mafia and politics. Notarbartolo had already denounced favoritism towards the most important and famous Sicilian businessmen, the Florio family, lambasted for the protections granted to the deputy Raffaele Palizzolo, a politician who had close ties with the Mafia Villabate. Were held three processes in three different cities.
Everyone knew that Palizzolo commissioned the murder, but despite everything and everyone, he was acquitted. Also as a result of these events the Giolitti government will be forced to resign; the Tangentopoli of umbertine vintage .
As I have stated I will not here go over the facts, and there are dozens like these just mentioned, however, that figuratively represent the state of corruption since those years in this country.
It took a hundred years of life, more or less, so that the Italian legislature to recognize the existence of the mafias in Italy and codified in the Penal Code the crime with art 416/bis; I leave aside, for a matter of time, but especially for the large penalty, the reasons for such delay to reach the year 2012 when the Italian government and the parliament have been forced by the EU to adopt a legislative staff on corruption .
Italy ratified in June 2013, the Criminal Law Convention on Corruption desired by the Council of Europe since the year 2009; in 2012 the Italian Government iinalmente launched a series of anti-corruption reforms in response to the deep disquiet emerged from the polls on the perception of the phenomenon, the Law 190 of 6 November 2012.
However, as noted by the European Commission, the new law leaves open a range of problems not insignificant:
· does not change the rules of the prescription;
· does not change the criminal law on false accounting;
· does not change the law on self laundering.
Also continues the report of the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council of Europe, "... the new text also breaks the criminal law provisions on concussion and corruption, threatening to give rise to ambiguities in practice and further limit the discretion of 'prosecution. The law provides offenses more specific and detailed starting from the text of a single offense defined in more general terms (for example, the concussion and the new offense of undue induction to give or promise utility) ... ".
The Council therefore recommended Italy to revise the rules of prescription with the recommendation 2013/C217/11 of the Council of 9 July 2013. In short, seems to have played with three cards; card wins, card loses.
Corruption, write Hinna and Marcantoni, in the homonymous book published in the series Le Saggine for Donzelli in 2013, is an "unfair tax" that costs for defect € 1500 to an Italian citizen by adding their formula to define corruption C = M + D + A + B + CE + CL + SG. Your?
One thing is certain: the corruption is still not perceived as a major problem relegating it, surreptitiously, to a mere fact of national immorality. No, it's much more, it is a moral problem of civil ethics, of perception of being a member of a community, but especially of democracy that is affected by the alteration of the basic rules for the development based on processes of merit and not patronage. Change all so that nothing changes!
Antonio De Bonis
tradotto da Laura Moretti
tradotto da Laura Moretti