lunedì 3 febbraio 2014


On 22 January, the Italian police have carried out a further investigation phase, which concludes a period of investigation started in 2006, of the investigation called Octopus, Karakatiza in Romanian, the official language of Moldova. 14 people were arrestaste, all Moldovans, because considered by the judge for preliminary investigations of Venice responsible for various crimes such, extortion, theft, as well as human trafficking and aiding illegal immigration, them in a single mafia-type criminal association.
This investigation represents an absolute novelty in the Italian case law, because of, for the first time, a criminal association at Eurasian ethnic composition is defined as organized mafya type association by a judge who has evaluated the the evidentiary material collected by investigators in the survey years. To be honest, in the past, there has been one other case involving a  Nigerian criminal organization, who also expressed his mafia-power toward their own ethnic group. This pronouncement, however, certainly marks a further step in the understanding of crime trends evolving in the contemporary world.
To be mafioso today is certainly something of different than what it is, unfortunately, still very much felt, the legacy of a folclorizzazione of media stereotypes that depict the mafioso only as Sicilian, Calabrian or perhaps Campanian but still tied to a well-defined territory. It is no longer exclusively in these terms that must be dealt with the problem of mafia-type criminality, and today, as the investigations mentioned above demonstrate, the mafioso can act inthis way regardless of the origin or the areas in which they operate. The important element, but not the only one as stated in the standard art. ex 416/bis, to be considered to identify the mafia essence of mafia of a criminal organization is definitely the intimidating force that emanates from the bond considered in its effects on people and not in connection with a well-defined territory. And behold, the 'Ndrangheta, for example, because of this, it can easily develop into regions such as Lombardy, Piedmont, Veneto, Lazio, Liguria and Emilia, or abroad, such as Canada and Australia, but also Belgium and Germany. And in fact the Moldovans arrested with Karakatiza operation, intimidated his fellow countrymen, who they oppressed, abusing their willingness controlling the market of shipments and trips to the motherland. In the past this criminal behavior was found for other ethnic groups such as Ukrainians, but it had never come to decree its mafia essence.
Recently I worked on these pages of ethnic Georgian crime and how it acts in Italy. For Moldovans applies, with some distinctions, the talk already made. There is a national contact point for managing the criminal activity of the cells of Moldovans operating in the country, each headed by a supervisor. The national contact point, the "Patron", which in turn is inserted into a structure that is part of, and has its referents in the context of Eurasian crime. The Moldovan organizations, such as the  Georgian, consider the Italian territory, and Europe in general, not a territory to conquer, to contend with other gangs, but rather a hunting area in order to accumulate capital to reinvest at home or in the lawful financial activities. A corollary of this is that any conflict situation is never revealed to the activities of indigenous crime. In essence, then, these are forms of predatory crime that exploit also their community by acting typically mafioso, as now recognized the GIP of Venice.
I think at this point due also to examine other aspects of these criminal organizations. We assume that a criminal organization is in effect a social group and as such can be read and understood and is thus a collection of individuals who interact, directly or indirectly, in continuity with each other by adhering to stable patterns but not rigid and are recognized as members of the community. Of course, each individual is called on to perform a well-defined role that takes the form of a series of expected and binding behaviors, especially in criminal associations the individual is reduced to the role that he assumes and that the organization gives him, depersonalizing and making practically secondary, better irrelevant , the human factor that does not take its own value to the underworld organization. So, we realize how the different roles within the criminal organization, are preponderant for the existence of the association, in fact, that it is certainly not a mere coincidence, all the criminal organizations are based on rituals and codes for the definition of the roles of its affiliates. And here emerges what I think is one of the most interesting aspects from the criminological point of view that is religious iconography which also the crime does not escape and which figuratively express the values ​​and purposes of these criminal organizations. This is a feature of criminal associations evolved, such as mafias in particular, that compared to those of common crime have a significant difference: the will of perpetration and the durability in the time. In order to achieve this continuity criminal organizations in order to pursue illicit enrichment and the power that derives from it, they need rituals and codes as a catalyst to generate and keep alive the relationship between member and organization. 
Although  Moldovan crime is no exception to this rule that is often relegated to a mere matter of folklore losing sight of the specific function that we have shown. Rituals and codes are essential especially in our western world heavily influenced by the Christian religion; refer to it for a number of reasons that I, here, I would reduce to the recognized superiority of transcendence and also the necessity to maintain direct contact with the "people "uneducated and therefore usually strongly influenced by the metaphysical. From here the rituals with images of saints who do vote and reference, Madonnas and Christs, and all the religious iconography. This mingling of the sacred and the profane can create some confusion in the neophyte, but just remember that it is always well-defined roles, regardless of the outward forms of formulas, rituals, names and oaths. 
Criminals Eastern Europe, Russians, Georgians, Moldovans, Azeris, Chechens and so on have formed their own criminal culture since the days of the Great Tsarist Russia in the flow of Slavic-Orthodox religious culture and refer to it, hence the images tattooed on the body that physically illustrate their criminal path understandable to those who is part of that world and is capable of interpreting the meanings through the outward symbols.

Di Antonio  De Bonis
Tradotto da Laura Moretti

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