mercoledì 23 febbraio 2011

Libya and the threat of exodus.

di antonio de bonis

Libya, since the '90s, has assumed the role of both destination and transit country for large-scale migration originating from the African continent. The route that leads migrants from the Horn of Africa to European countries arrived in Libya and continued by sea to the coasts of Sicily and Malta.
A significant proportion of migrants who do not have the resources to continue the journey to a European country or after having failed an attempt to enter Europe prefer to stay in North Africa and wait in expectation of new possibilities. A few prefer to return to their countries of origin, which are more unstable, dangerous, and substantially poorer than those of North Africa. Most large cities in the Maghreb countries, such as Nouakchott, Rabat, Oran, Algiers, Tunis, Tripoli, Benghazi, home to a large and growing community of sub-Saharan migrants.
Migrants from the Horn of Africa's poorest, and many African countries, are directed with long journeys in stages, on the west coast of Libya between Tripoli and Zuwarah, then set sail on board of vessels of various kinds, inflatable boats, small boats or vessels, at a time of Lampedusa, Sicily and Malta. Travels transfer leading to Libya on board or off-road trucks are run by criminal organizations articulate, with the complicity of corrupt police officers.
In Tripoli and nearby towns to embark formed an undergrowth of intermediaries from different backgrounds and countries, it is a multi-ethnic criminal reality by which we create and develop the relationship necessary to overcome the difficulties related to ethnic differences. In this context, creating precise arrangements for the management of migratory flows in order to draw from it the greatest possible profit. The terminals of the criminal organizations present in Libya establish close relationships with foreign intermediaries are able to maintain contact with the inmates of their ethnicity in order to facilitate logistics operations to collect, hold, in special dorms, and a subsequent shipment.
Years ago, the smugglers were mostly professional pilots, Tunisians and Egyptians, carrying 10-15 people per trip and left again quickly. Later the strategy changed and we moved to the use of boats or rafts "disposable" loaded to capacity and are not a professional pilot.
Currently boats are also used with more than a hundred passengers and some migrants receive directly from traffickers rudimentary instructions on how to direct the boat. The only instrument on board is often a compass (for example, to reach Lampedusa, from Al Zwarha in Libya, the main point of departure, just follow the route 0.05, while on a course you get to 0:00 Portopalo Capo Passero (SR) , the southern tip of Sicily).
Sometimes this is true "travel packages" that include assistance in Italy at the exit of the reception centers, to reach the final destination of your choice. Generally, payment is required in advance of the crossings, while the payment of travel is more complex in two installments: half in advance, half through money transfer agencies reached their destination.
With the entry into force of the Treaty of Benghazi, which was concluded between Italy and Libya, 30 August 2008, the director of Libya from the Horn of Africa has seen a gradual decrease. The bilateral agreement has strengthened the operational capabilities of Libya migrant route stops at the southern Libyan or at least off the African coast. The protocol also includes the provision for Police Libyan patrol boats and new equipment and the construction, for work group is a network of satellite tracking to monitor the desert borders.
Obviously the problem of illegal entry into Italian territory will not be solved also because of the considerable flexibility of the criminal organizations involved in the exploitation of migrant smuggling.
The post-modern and globalized crime was changing rapidly adapting their modus operandi in order to exploit the opportunities created by crisis areas and especially from those existing in the making, the economic crisis and political uncertainties in order to become, in extreme cases, serving the interests of those States.
In other words, the crime-to-first breaks the physical barriers between the States illegally, using the channel-migration. When this process has developed the West was still at the stage of euphoria resulting from the fall of the Berlin Wall.
At the same time crime, whether local or foreign, had already organized to manage networks of illegal trade taking on a transnational character, getting to interact with the local government corrupt.
The question which now arouses our interests in relation to the current situation in Libya, to the possible role that criminal organizations present in that country can play in helping to shape the future political order.
It 'clear that in some way, the control structure of the former regime was, at least, been penetrated by criminal organizations in question. The flow of illicit money that this activity generates is impressive, considering the armature of which we have referred in relation to the activities on the ground of a logistic nature. It seems safe to assume that the entire chain criminal attempt to overcome this and to this end will be ready to dialogue with those who could emerge as a future winner and stabilizing force providing, in return for their considerable support.