di antonio de bonis
Mexico is experiencing at this stage of its history the unfolding of a process of allocation of part of sovereignty between the central government and organized crime.The recent acts of violence must be seen also in a war of position between the numerous and aggressive part of the dynamics of Mexican criminal organizations linked to drug trafficking to the United States and Continental Europe.This war has its origin in the loss of the hegemonic role of the Colombian cartels of Medellin and Cali drug traffickers. Over the last decade, the authorities of the Republic of Colombia, also due to the pressure exerted by the international community have dismantled these two powerful organizations involved in managing the world of the cocaine produced in the Andean area.This ephemeral success achieved by the Colombian authorities has led to a momentary power vacuum which, as history and experience teach, of course, was filled in a logic of the market.In fact, given the weakness of the Colombian criminal organizations lower the power vacuum was quickly filled by those of Mexico, already well structured and efficient.Mexican criminal organizations operating on the market of illegal drug trafficking for decades, but relegated to the management, in the alternative, the activities related to transport and transfer of the cocaine produced in Colombia, mainly to North America.This new role on the international criminal organizations in Mexico can not be separated from control of the territory that is of primary importance to the objectives of a criminal organization level. Claim a piece of land means taking a specific role in the management of social relations that are generated by it and, above all, the one with the sovereign state. It is in fact to exercise a portion of sovereignty which the state gives even against his will. It follows that the assessment of the degree of sovereignty can be transferred to determine the real substance of the State.The geography of Mexico lends itself naturally to the dynamics of involvement in drug trafficking to the world markets. The position of the hinge between the two Americas and the bridge to the African continent and determine the strategic importance in trafficking routes and then, not surprisingly, the Mexican criminal organizations control the borders, both land and sea, meeting in four large federations.As mentioned, this war, fought between the various criminal organizations and between those with the central federal government, has its main focus in the control of the territory. The search for such control is essential to exercise the power of traffic management of the cocaine produced in the Andean countries and direct to consumer markets. The recent bloody events were determined attempt by the federal government of President Felipe Calderon to exercise their prerogatives.These wars for control of the territory are of such importance to the actors who often are resolved by a non-aggression pact for everyone. This result is the most morally sanctioned 'spread. Criminal organizations have the appearance of mafia only when they arrive in order to control its own territory with which to develop a symbiotic relationship. Those Mexican at this stage fighting the central government only if and when it is interfering in their process of penetration of the territory. That criminal organizations is never a subversive plot in the strict sense because they need the state and led to its rules. The State, the right hand, is obliged, by definition, to deal with this penetration, but not always need to get there, quite the contrary. In the latter case it creates a situation of compromise that more and more 'is often demonstrated by the analysis of many countries around the world.The federal government of Felipe Calderon has two ways to cope with the role of organized crime upright native: direct contrast with conventional forces, police and military, and diplomatic channels putting direct pressure on the United States of America as the largest market target drugs.In the first case, law enforcement efforts are often thwarted by the huge degree of corruption of local administrative officials in the pay of organized crime. On the diplomatic front takes a long time and a willingness to engage in political interlocutor expensive and expendable by little electoral point of view, demand reduction.The drug cartels can count on a very strong bond with the land which originates in the lymph and subsidiary role they have played and will play against the population. The local administrative units are almost exclusively the preserve of the various criminal organizations linked to that area. The exercise of its jurisdiction over corrupt local administrators are frustrated by the intervention by the drug cartels armed actions against the federal police and army.Each time, at this juncture, Mexico State will attempt any action to contain the local power of criminal organizations with the latter claim, the blood its role for the territory. America for its part, but also the neighboring southern states, will seek to implement policies to contain the problem through new restrictive immigration laws, surely paying in terms of electoral support.In this context, criminal organizations continue to join forces in armed conflict to the central power and, simultaneously, to seek a balance in the management of their economic interests linked to drug trafficking.